Any bodily movement produced by the contraction of skeletal muscle that increases energy expenditure above a basal level. Physical activity generally refers to the subset of physical activity that enhances health.


A subcategory of physical activity that is planned, structured, repetitive, and purposive in the sense that the improvement or maintenance of one or more components of physical fitness is the objective. “Exercise” and “exercise training” frequently are used interchangeably and generally refer to physical activity performed during leisure time with the primary purpose of improving or maintaining physical fitness, physical performance, or health.


In the field of physical activity, dose refers to the amount of physical activity performed by the subject or participant. The total dose or amount is determined by the three components of activity: frequency, duration, and intensity. Frequency is commonly expressed in sessions, episodes, or bouts per day or per week. Duration is the length of time for each bout of any specific activity. Intensity is the rate of energy expenditure necessary to perform the activity to accomplish the desired function (aerobic activity) or the magnitude of the force exerted during resistance exercise.


Aerobic Activity.

EFFECT ON PHYSICAL FITNESS ; Improves body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness.

Muscle-strengthening Activity .

EFFECT ON PHYSICAL FITNESS ; Improves muscular fitness such as muscular strength and endurance.

Stretching Activity .

EFFECT ON PHYSICAL FITNESS; Improves flexibility such as range of motion

Neuromuscular Activity

EFFECT ON PHYSICAL FITNESS;Improves neuromuscular fitness such as balance, agility and proprioception.

Aerobic Exercise.


Any activity that uses large muscle groups, can be maintained continuously, and is rhythmical in nature can be regarded as an aerobic exercise. In general, aerobic exercises requiring little skill to perform are more commonly recommended for all adults to improve fitness.

Aerobic exercises that require minimal skills and can be easily modified to accommodate individual physical fitness levels include brisk walking, leisure cycling, swimming, aqua-aerobics and slow dancing.

Aerobic exercises that are typically performed at a higher intensity and, therefore, are recommended for persons who exercise regularly include jogging, running, aerobics, stepping exercise, fast dancing and elliptical exercise.

Dosage of Aerobic Exercise.

The dosage of aerobic exercise is a function of the frequency (F), intensity (I) and duration (time, T) of the exercise performed. In combination with the type (T) of exercise performed, these factors constitute the basic components of the core principle of exercise prescription (the FITT principle). Primary care practitioners should be able to specify each of the above components when prescribing aerobic exercises to their patients. It should be noted that even small increases in caloric expenditure with physical activity may improve physical fitness outcomes, with sedentary persons accruing the most benefits.

Rate of Progression of Aerobic Exercises.

Progression of exercise refers to the process of increasing the intensity, duration, frequency, or amount of activity or exercise as the body adapts to a given activity pattern. The recommended sequence of progression is diagrammed below :

Increasing Duration:

E.g. increase duration of exercise session by 5 to 10 mins every 1 to 2 weeks over the first 4 to 6 weeks.

Increasing Frequency and Intensity:

E.g. increase frequency and intensity of exercise session as tolerated over the next 4 to 8 months.

The individual should be monitored for any adverse effects of the increased volume, and downward adjustments should be made if the exercise is not well tolerated.

Muscle-strengthening Exercise,

Muscle-strengthening exercises enable muscles to do more work than they are accustomed (i.e., to overload the muscles). Muscle-strengthening exercises count if they involve a moderate to high level of intensity and work the major muscle groups of the body: the legs, hips, back, chest, abdomen, shoulders, and arms.

Resistance exercise, including weight training, is a well-known example of muscle-strengthening exercise which could be prescribed using the FITT framework.

Dosage of Resistance Exercise .

The dosage of resistance exercise is a function of the frequency, intensity and volume of the exercise performed. Primary care practitioners should be able to specify the dosage and the type when prescribing resistance exercises to their patients. It should be noted that each resistance exercise should be performed with proper techniques. Individuals who are new to resistance exercises should receive instructions from trained personnel before engaging in these exercises.

STRETCHING EXERCISE. Stretching exercises are effective in increasing flexibility, thereby allowing people to more easily do activities that require greater flexibility. For this reason, flexibility activities are a reasonable part of an exercise programme, even though they have no known health benefits and it is unclear whether they reduce risk of injury.


Static Stretching.

Involves a voluntary passive relaxation of muscle while it is elongated.

Dynamic Stretching.

Involves a swinging, bouncing or bobbing movement during the stretch as the final position in the movement is not held.

Active Stretching.

Involves active contraction of the agonist muscles to move a limb through a full range of motion while the functional antagonist is being stretched .

Slow Movements.

Slow movements of a muscle, such as lateral neck flexions, arm rotations and trunk rotations.

Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation.

Isometric contraction of the muscle after static stretching, followed by a greater stretch passively.

Components of a Single Exercise Session.



At least 5 to 10 mins of low to moderate intensity aerobic exercise or resistance exercise with lighter weights.


0 to 60 mins of aerobic, resistance, neuromuscular, and/or sport activities.


At least 5 to 10 mins of low to moderate intensity aerobic exercise or resistance exercise with lighter weights.


At least 10 mins of stretching exercises performed after the warm-up or cool-down phase


Step aerobics has all the benefits of a high-intensity cardio workout without putting stress on your joints. It improves overall fitness by building strength , reducing fat, and boosting your cardiovascular health. It also burns calories, making it an ideal way to maintain your target body weight.

If you have arthritis, step aerobics can be a good weight-bearing exercise for you, since you can adjust the step's height and the intensity of your workout. If you have hip, foot, ankle, or knee pain.


An exercise ball, also known as a yoga ball, is a ball constructed of soft elastic with a diameter of approximately 35 to 85 centimeters and filled with air. The air pressure is changed by removing a valve stem and either filling with air or letting the ball deflate.

10 Exercise Ball Moves

Stability ball jackknife.

Stability ball hamstring curl.

Stability ball deadbug.

Stability ball V-pass.

Stability decline push-up.

Stability ball wall squat.

Russian twist.

Single-leg stability ball hip thrust.

The idea of sitting on an exercise ball instead of a traditional office chair is that the instability of an exercise ball requires the user to increase trunk muscle activation and thus increase core strength, improve posture and decrease discomfort. Another benefit ball chair supporters claim is increased calorie burn.

Using exercise balls while exercising can provide some amazing benefits such as back and spine health, core stability, better posture and muscle balance. It only seems logical that using them more frequently or for longer periods of time could help even more. This may not necessarily be the case though.


A skipping rope or jump rope is a tool used in the sport of skipping/jump rope where one or more participants jump over a rope swung so that it passes under their feet and over their heads.

Longer jump rope sessions (20 – 60 minutes) are great for building aerobic fitness, but it's important to be wary of the stresses that are imposed on your legs and connective tissues during long periods of jumping.

Jumping rope, for example, is more dynamic and will elevate your heart rate but jumping rope won't directly get rid of belly fat. Jumping rope, like other exercises, burns calories. Jumping rope can help you burn body fat.

We can jump rope every day. However, how much we jump each day depends on your skill level, conditioning, and overall physical health. If you decide to jump rope every day, it's important to start slowly and listen to your body to prevent injury.

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